An Evaluation of Urban Regeneration Efforts in Kibera, Kenya through Slum Upgrading
Kibera, a slum in Kenya experiences social, economic, and spatial challenges arising from rapid urbanization and inability of the government to provide affordable housing. Located five kilometers from the city center, Kibera is home to approximately 185.000 people, the majority of whom are low-income earners. Besides housing challenges, Kibera lacks basic facilities like roads and clean water. Kenyan Government in partnership with UN-Habitat and other organizations has initiated Kenya Slum Upgrading Program (KENSUP) for the purpose of upgrading the infrastructure, housing, and supply of basic services. The pilot project was conducted in Soweto East village of Kibera and involved temporary relocation of the residents to a receiving area to provide room for upgrading. This research uses SWOT analysis method and scrutiny of past studies including interviews conducted in Soweto area to evaluate the KENSUP project in Kibera, to identify the gaps in the program implementation, and to make suitable recommendations for an effective slum upgrading program. The research also examines the historical context of the slum formation and past attempts to address the slum issues. To obtain data, this paper analyses previous research works, articles, government reports, postgraduate theses, policies and legal documents among others. The research establishes that lack of a specific law on urban regeneration impedes the upgrading process. Inadequate involvement of the community in project identification, planning, and implementation is also identified to have caused the residents to reject, rent or sell the new houses allocated to them, opting instead to go back to the slum.
Agayi, C. O., Karakayacı, Ö. (2020). The Role of Changing Housing Policies in Housing Affordability and Accessibility in Developing Countries: The Case of Kenya. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 4(2), p.49-58. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2020.v4n2-5
Amado, M. P., Ramalhete, I., Amado, A. R., Freitas, J. C. (2016). Regeneration of Informal Areas: An Integrated Approach. Cities, 58, p.59-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2016.05.015
Amis, P. (1984). Squatters or Tenants: The Commercialization of Unauthorized Housing in Nairobi. World Development, 12(1), p.87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(84)90037-8
Anderson, M., Mwelu, K. (2013). Kenyan Slum Upgrading Programs: KISIP & KENSUP. UC Berkeley Center for Global Healthy Cities.
Annez, P. C., Buckley, R. M. (2009). Urbanization and Growth: Setting the Context. Urbanization and Growth, 1, p.1-45.
Balaton-Chrimes, S. (2017). Recognition, Coloniality and International Development: A Case Study of the Nubians and the Kenya Slum Upgrading Project. Postcolonial Studies, 20(1), p.51-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/13688790.2017.1355878
Bird, J., Montebruno, P., Regan, T. (2017). Life in a Slum: Understanding Living Conditions in Nairobi’s Slums across Time and Space. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 33(3), p.496-520. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grx036
CastellsQuintana, D. (2018). Beyond Kuznets: Inequality and the Size and distribution of cities. Journal of Regional Science, 58(3), p.564-580. https://doi.org/10.1111/jors.12368
Cirolia, L. R., Görgens, T., van Donk, M., Smit, W., Drimie, S. (2017). Upgrading Informal Settlements in South Africa: Pursuing a Partnership-Based Approach. Johannesburg: Juta and Company (Pty) Ltd.
Desgroppes, A., Taupin, S. (2011). Kibera: The Biggest Slum in Africa? Les Cahiers d’Afrique de l’Est/The East African Review, (44), p.1-10.
Ezeh, A., Oyebode, O., Satterthwaite, D., Chen, Y.-F., Ndugwa, R., Sartori, J., . . . Watson, S. I. (2017). The History, Geography, and Sociology of Slums and the Health Problems of People Who Live in Slums. The Lancet, 389(10068), p.547-558. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31650-6
Fernandez, R., Rosa A., Calas, B. (2011). The Kibera Soweto East Project in Nairobi, Kenya. Les Cahiers d’Afrique de l’Est/The East African Review, (44), p.1-13.
Friesen, J., Taubenböck, H., Wurm, M., Pelz, P. F. (2019). Size Distributions of Slums across the Globe Using Different Data and Classification Methods. European Journal of Remote Sensing, p.99-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/22797254.2019.1579617
GOK. (2009). Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009 on National Land Policy. Nairobi: Government Printer.
GOK. (2010). The Constitution of Kenya, 2010. Nairobi: Government Printer.
GOK. (2013). Background Document: The National Slum Upgrading and Prevention Policy. Nairobi: Government Printer.
GOK. (2019). Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume i: Population by County and Sub County. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Habitat for Humanity. (2018). The Proliferation of Slums. https://www.habitatforhumanity.org.uk/country/kenya (7.7.2020).
Hasan, M. A., Nahiduzzaman, K. M., Aldosary, A. S. (2018). Public Participation in EIA: A Comparative Study of the Projects Run by Government and Non-Governmental Organizations. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 72, p.12-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2018.05.001
Huchzermeyer, M. (2008). Slum Upgrading in Nairobi within the Housing and Basic Services Market: A Housing Rights Concern. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 43(1), p. 19-39. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0021909607085586
Kajilwa, G. (2017). Why Kibera Residents Opted to Give out New Houses. Standard Digital. https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001252370/why-kibera-residents-opted-to-give-out-new-houses (7.7.2020).
Kamete, A. Y. (2009). In the Service of Tyranny: Debating the Role of Planning in Zimbabwe's Urban Clean-up Operation. Urban studies, 46(4), p.897-922. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0042098009102134
Kenya. (2007). Kenya Vision 2030: Government of the Republic of Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kibere, F. N. (2016). The Capability of Mobility in Kibera 'Slum', Kenya: An Ethnographic Study of How Young People Use and Appropriate New Media and ICTs, Doctorate Thesis, University of Leicester.
Korkmaz, C., Balaban, O. (2019). Sustainability of Urban Regeneration in Turkey: Assessing the Performance of the North Ankara Urban Regeneration Project. Habitat International, 95, p.1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2019.102081
Lai, L. W. (2014). Private Property Rights Not to Use, Earn from or Trade Land in Urban Planning and Development: A Meeting Between Coase and Buchanan. Habitat International, 44, p.555-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.10.014
MacDonald, M. (2014). Community Perception of Slum Upgrading Initiatives in Soweto East, Kibera (Nairobi, Kenya). Master Thesis, McGill University Libraries,
Mitra, S., Mulligan, J., Schilling, J., Harper, J., Vivekananda, J., Krause, L. (2017). Developing Risk or Resilience? Effects of Slum Upgrading on the Social Contract and Social Cohesion in Kibera, Nairobi. Environment and Urbanization, 29(1), p.103-122. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0956247816689218
Mukeku, J. (2018). Urban Slum Morphology and Socio-economic Analogies: A Case Study of Kibera Slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Urbanisation, 3(1), p.17-32. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2455747118790581
Muraguri, L. (2011). Kenyan Government Initiatives in Slum Upgrading. Les Cahiers d’Afrique de l’Est/The East African Review, (44), p.1-9. https://journals.openedition.org/eastafrica/534
Mwau, D. M. (2013). A Critical Analysis of the Implementation of the Slum Upgrading Policies in Kenya, Master Degree, University of KwaZuluNatal, Pietermaritzburg.
Napier, M. (2007). Informal Settlement Integration, the Environment and Sustainable Livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. Council for Scientific & Industrial Research in South Africa. http://www.grif.umontreal.ca/pages/i-rec%20papers/napier.pdf (14.07.2020)
Ogundele, A. (2014). Decanting and Social Sustainability: Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme (A Case Study). Master Thesis, University of Waterloo.
Owino, K. (2017). Housing Policy as an Agenda for Elections 2017. Nairobi: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Pimoljinda, T., Siriprasertchok, R. (2017). Failure of Public Participation for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of a NGO's Development Projects in Chonburi Province. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38(3), p.331-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjss.2016.08.016
ROK. (2004). Sessional Paper No.3 of 2004 on National Housing Policy for Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Shaw, K., Butler, T. (2020). Urban Regeneration. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (Second Edition), p.97-103. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102295-5.10349-X
Smedt, J. V. A. d. (2011). The Nubis of Kibera: A Social History of the Nubians and Kibera Slums. Doctorate Thesis, Faculty of the Humanities, Leiden University.
Sulemana, I., Nketiah-Amponsah, E., Codjoe, E. A., Andoh, J. A. N. (2019). Urbanization and Income Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, p.1-8 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101544
UN Habitat & Government of Kenya. (2001). Nairobi Situation Analysis: A Collaborative Slum Upgrading Initiative (Consultative Report). Nairobi: UN Habitat
UN-Habitat. (2007). Briefing Note on Gok/UN-Habitat. Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme (KENSUP). https://mirror.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/4628_12787_GC%2021%20Kenya.pdf (14.07.20)
UN‐Habitat. (2003). The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. London and Sterling, VA: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
United Nations. (2018). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision (ST/ESA/SER.A/420). New York: United Nations.
Uzun, B., Simsek, N. C. (2015). Upgrading of Illegal Settlements in Turkey; The Case of North Ankara Entrance Urban Regeneration Project. Habitat International, 49, p.157-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.05.026
Way, C. (2015). The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. New York: United Nations.
Copyright (c) 2020 IDA: International Design and Art Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
IDA: International Design and Art Journal is an open-access academic journal. All publishing rights of the accepted articles are deemed to assign to IDA: International Design and Art Journal. Articles can not be published and copied anywhere, and can not be used without reference.
IDA: International Design and Art Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.