Changing Human Factor in the Concept of Design and Changing Inclusive Design Approaches
The starting point of the design concept is considered concurrent with the history of humanity. In designing, which directly depends on humans with its existence, all the products, both abstract and concrete, are addressed to meet the needs of human beings. In this process, the physical, cultural, and perceptual characteristics of human play decisive roles. In the design process, human perception is one of the main factors that determine the structure of the resulting product. These kind of historical changes have transformed design approaches through alteration. In this framework, it is aimed to reveal the determinant role of the understanding of the human factor in influencing the design process. It is important to evaluate the design approaches ensuring the usability of the products, spaces, or services in terms of way they handle the human factor. Therefore, the descriptive research method has been used in this study. The obtained data has been evaluated by using the qualitative analysis method, besides the quantitative data obtained from both international and national studies as well as statistics have been included. According to the acquired data, it has been observed that any design product which affects everyone’s needs requires to be taken into account for the entire of society. The concept that stands out here is inclusivity in design, which requires considering both the temporary or permanent obstacles that people have throughout their lifetime. In this context, it has been observed that in today's design approaches, the human factor, which has diversified with its physical and perceptual capacities, has begun to be evaluated interestedly. As a result, it has been found that in the historical process, the design approaches and the view of the human factor have progressed correspondingly with each other. Also, it has been observed that the typology of "normal human" is tried to be left behind in each of the design approaches developed today. At this point, it is seen that developing an integrated perspective towards the human factor in design fields will make design approaches more contemporary.
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